1. Explain how the Uprising of 1857 established an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India. [250 words]
The 1857 revolt made Indians a force to be reckoned with, forcing the British government to bring about re-organisation of its existing administration and policies towards colonial India in the ensuing years. Thus British Indian history in the 19th century is often divided into two halves: an age of ill-considered Victorian liberalism, followed by an age of iron conservatism, separated by the great watershed of 1857.
The changes in British Policy can be explained as follows:
Transfer of the Administration to British Crown: As per the provisions of the newly introduced Government of India act 1858, the administration of India was put directly under the paramountcy of British crown, supervised by a secretary of state for India.
Provincial Administration: The British had divided India into provinces for administrative convenience and presidencies administered respectively by a Governor General and a Lieutenant Governor.
Changes in Military Administration: The domination of the Indians in the army was carefully guaranteed to prevent the recurrence of another coup, by increasing the proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army. Induction of soldiers from different communities in a single regiment were taken in an attempt to break the unity.
Policy of divide and rule: Tuning the communities, castes against each other as such were evolved as per British Divide and Rule policy so as to prevent nationalism, for example, induction of soldiers from different communities into a single regiment.
Change in attitude towards zamindars: The British changed their existing attitude towards
the Zamindars by restoring their lands to fetch their loyalty.
Introduction of Political Participation by Indians: Indian Council Act of 1861 encouraged Indian participation in politics.
Abolition of Policy of annexation: The Doctrine of Lapse for colonial expansion was done away with as princely state were given autonomy with acceptance of British Paramountcy.
Development of Railway & Communication: In the quest of its empire consolidation, the British developed railway and communication to ensure its reach economically, politically, militarily in every corner of India.
Restriction of press: Vernacular Press act 1858 intended to prevent the local press from expressing criticism of British policies.
Policy of neglecting Higher Education: Contrary to earlier position, higher education and intellectuals were neglected as they were seen as being instrument of modern nationalism.
Although 1857 revolt failed to achieve its goal, yet surely it did shape the colonial policies in India in the coming years.
1. Mahatma Gandhi undertook fast unto death in 1932, mainly because: [PRE-2012]
(a) Round Table Conference failed to satisfy Indian political aspirations
(b) Congress and Muslim League had differences of opinion
(c) Ramsay Macdonald announced the Communal Award
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS
Q.1 Which of the statement(s) regarding Gaganyaan Human space Flight program is/are true?
1. This program is undertaken by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
2. The ‘Gaganyaan’ spacecraft will use India’s home-grown GSLV Mark-III launch vehicle,
3. The main objective of this programme is to develop and fly a crewed orbital spacecraft to low Earth orbit and safely return to Earth after a stay of 5-7 days in the orbit, after performing micro-gravity experiments.
(a) 1 & 2
(b) 2 & 3
(c) 1 & 3
(d) 1, 2 & 3
Q2. Which of the following statement(s) about the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), which is recently in news, is/are true?
1. it aims to counter the aggression by Iran, Russia and North Korea through punitive
2. Act primarily deals with sanctions on Russian interests such as its oil and gas industry,
defence and security sector, and financial institutions, in the backdrop of its military
intervention in Ukraine and its alleged meddling in the 2016 US Presidential elections.
3. It has the potential to adversely affect India’s arms procurement from its traditional partner,
ACE UPSC 3
(a) 1 & 2
(b) 2 & 3
(c) 1 & 3
(d) 1, 2 & 3
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