- “The permanent settlement system of Bengal though initiated with best of best of intentions, was a sadly blundering affair.” Comment. [250 words]
Prior to the arrival of Lord Cornwallis in India, the land revenue collection system was in complete bedlam in the diwani provinces. The introduction of the quinquennial and later the annual settlements for revenue collection had come a cropper. The prevalent deplorable condition of the agriculture, revenue collection and trade necessitated the fixation of revenue permanently, giving rise to the Permanent Settlement.
Initiated with the best of intentions:
Creation of private property in land: The idea was that no government could be assured of its revenue unless it was prepared to guarantee the rights of proprietorship/ private ownership of lands.
Security of Revenue: Right to property in land would ensure the regularity and permanence of revenue income by a settlement with zamindars.
Creation of ‘improving’ landlords: security of property rights would induce prosperous Indians to invest in land and they would be making fresh investments and initiating improvements in the rural areas
Agricultural development capital formation: The above three would facilitate agricultural development, leading to capital generation.
A blundering Affair:
Ruination of the peasant class: The government remained unresponsive to the oppressive measures taken by the zamindars against the cultivators to collect revenues. The latter were at the mercy of the zamindars.
Minacious sunset law: Many zamindars fell victim to the unpopular sunset law which accounted for withdrawal of private property right upon not paying the sky-high land revenue. This led to the creation of a new ‘landlordism’ which included merchants, revenue officers, money lenders, who had no interest in the development of land and public welfare.
Inability to enhance land revenue: Even with the rise in price of grains and produce of the soil, the government could not enhance the land revenue complying with the fixation of the revenue amount.
Failure to produce ‘improving landlords’: The thought that after being assured of proprietorship, the zamindars would make improvements in the land failed miserably as they spent profit on their luxuries and pleasures instead of investing in the betterment of the agriculture.
Proliferation of subinfeudation or absentee landlordism: Typically, the zamindar used to delegate the task of collecting the rent to a middleman on condition of a part of the collection as his commission, leading to further exploitation of the cultivators. This also kept the idea of private ownership in vague.
Contrary to the official expectations, the growing disillusionment with the functioning of the Permanent Settlement proves it nothing but a blunder.
- Which of the following parties were established by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar?[PRE-2012]
1. The Peasants and Workers Party of India
2. All India Scheduled Castes Federation
3. The Independent Labour Party
Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
a. 1 and 2 only
b. 2 and 3 only
c. 1 and 3 only
d. 1, 2 and 3
DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS
- Which of the statement(s) regarding Ayushman Bharat-Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) scheme is/are true?
- It is world’s largest government-funded healthcare scheme aims to benefit over 10 crore families by providing them cashless health assurance up to Rs.5 lakh every year without paying any premium.
- This scheme targets the poor, deprived rural families and identifies an occupational categories of urban workers’ families as per the latest Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) data.
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above
- Which of the following is not a founding member of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)?
- United Arab emirates
Prepared: Bikesh Varman