Botany Paper – II UPSC Mains Syllabus
1. Cell Biology: Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranescell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport;
- Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes);
- Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis;
- Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over;
- Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function);
- Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation;
- Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
- Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families;
- Organic evolution – evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding;
- DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering – methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding;
- Tools and techniques – probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
- Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test, ttest and chi-square test);
- Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson); Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies; Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport;
- Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation) – electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration;
- Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome);
- Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence;
- Growth substances – their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy, storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession;
- Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation;
- Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation);
- Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
- Forest types of India – Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry;
- Endangered plants, endemism, IUCN categories, Red Data Books;
- Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network;
- Convention on Biological Diversity;
- Farmers’ Rights and Intellectual Property Rights;
- Concept of Sustainable Development;
- Biogeochemical cycles;
- Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species;
- Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.