Botany Paper – II UPSC Mains Syllabus

Botany Paper – II UPSC Mains Syllabus


1. Cell Biology: Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells – structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall), membranescell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport;

  • Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes);
  • Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors;  Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis;
  • Molecular basis of cell cycle; Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes  and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes – structure, behaviour and significance.

2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over;

  • Methods of gene mapping, including molecular maps (idea of mapping function);
  • Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex determination and molecular  basis of sex differentiation;
  • Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics  of male sterility).
  • Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing;  Multigene families;
  • Organic evolution – evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male  sterility and heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding;

  • DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering  – methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of  molecular markers in plant breeding;
  • Tools and techniques – probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
  • Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance (Z-test, ttest and chi-square test);
  • Probability and  distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson); Correlation and regression.

4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies; Photosynthesis – photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways;  C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport;

  • Respiration (anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)  – electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration;
  • Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes;  Energy transfer and energy conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites;  Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome);
  • Plant movements; Photoperiodism and  flowering, vernalization, senescence;
  • Growth substances – their chemical nature,  role and applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy,  storage and germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and  manipulation.

5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession;

  • Concept of biosphere;  Ecosystems; Conservation;
  • Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation);
  • Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
  • Forest types of India – Ecological and economic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry;
  • Endangered  plants, endemism, IUCN categories, Red Data Books;
  • Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network;
  • Convention  on Biological Diversity;
  • Farmers’  Rights and Intellectual Property Rights;
  • Concept of Sustainable Development;
  • Biogeochemical  cycles;
  • Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species;
  • Environmental  Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Botany Paper – I UPSC Mains Syllabus

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *