Definitions play most important role to understand a topic and subject clearly. We are providing definitions of few important terms used in Sociology UPSC Mains Syllabus (Most important for Beginners)
Achieved Status – A status that we either earn or choose and that is not subject to where or to whom we were born. For Example Class System – A system of stratification based on achieved statuses.
Ascribed Status – A trait or characteristic people possess as a result of the circumstances of birth. For Example Caste System in India– A system of stratification based on ascribed statuses. and Estate System in Europe
Socialisation is the process of internalising the norms and ideologies of society.
Agents Of Socialisation – People, groups, and experiences that influence our behaviour and self-image.
Anticipatory Socialization – The learning of new norms and values in anticipation of a future role.
Alienation – The feeling of workers in a bureaucracy that they are being treated as objects rather than people.
Anomie – According to strain theory, the feeling of being disconnected from society that can occur when people aren’t provided with the institutionalized means to achieve their goals. The term was coined by Émile Durkheim.
American Dream – The belief that all Americans, regardless of the conditions of their birth, have an equal chance to achieve success.
Apartheid – A social system in which there is total separation of the races.
Assimilation – The process whereby members of a group give up parts of their own culture in order to blend in to a new culture.
Blue-Collar – Term used for the working class.
Social Processes: The means by which something takes place in society.
Social Issues: Issues and problems that affect individuals, groups and communities in there daily lives.