Hartog Committee

Hartog Committee

  • Appointed to survey the growth of education in British India.
  • Chaired by Philip Joseph Hartog, a British chemist and educationalist. Hartog has also served under the Sadler Commission.
  • In 1929, the Hartog Committee submitted its report.  The Hartog Committee had concentrated its attention more on primary and secondary education and less on university education.
  • It devoted far more attention to mass education than Secondary and University Education.
  • The committee was not satisfied with the scanty growth of literacy in the country and highlighted the problem of ‘Wastage’ and ‘Stagnation’ at the primary level.
Higher Education Reforms:-
  • The Committee praised the growth in number of affiliated colleges and it also hinted at the fall of standard in university education due to the worsening of its environment because of growth of affiliated colleges.
  • The Committee criticized the introduction of Honors courses in some universities and pointed out that they were outmoded.
  • Higher education could not be possible through Honors courses, as only increasing the duration by one year for these was not enough.
  • The Indian public opinion, too, felt that the universities had failed to meet the needs of the people. The country was undergoing political upheavals and it needed young men with a spirit of sacrifice and hard work.
  • The universities in India were unable to contribute anything in this sphere. Hence a discontent against them spread in the people.
  • Many universities were conducting only examinations, although the teaching and research work had already been started in some universities. There were no good libraries in any university.
  • In the opinion of the Hartog Committee it was the duty of universities to produce such individuals who were tolerant, liberal and suitable to undertake great responsibilities.
  • The universities in India were not equal to this task.
  • Hence the Committee gave the following suggestions for their reforms-
    • The Committee recommended the establishment of some affiliating universities keeping in view the great demand for higher education.
    • The Committee admitted that the standard of education in the affiliated colleges of these universities would be poorer than in teaching universities, but under the circumstances affiliated colleges alone could meet the demand for higher education of the people.
    • The teachers for affiliated colleges should be appointed by universities.
    • The admission, in universities should be controlled on the basis of abilities and aptitudes of students.
    • The Honors course should be of more advanced nature than the pass courses and these courses should be instituted only at the universities.
    • Provision should be made for technical education by the universities. The universities have to control the problem of unemployment by opening employment opportunities.
Primary Education Reforms:-It mentioned that the great waste of money and efforts which resulted because of the pupils leaving their schools before completing the particular stage of education. It suggested the following important measures for the improvement of primary education.
  • Adoption of the policy of consolidation in place of multiplication of schools;
  • Fixation of the duration of primary course to four years;
  • Improvement in the quality, training, status, pay, service condition of teachers;
  • Relating the curricula and methods of teaching to the conditions of villages in which children live and read;
  • Adjustment of school hours and holidays to seasonal and local requirements;
  • Increasing the number of Government inspection staff.

Secondary Education Reforms:-

  • In the sphere of secondary education the Committee indicated a great waste of efforts due to the immense number of failures at the Matriculation Examination.
  • It attributed that the laxity of promotion from one class to another in the earlier stages and persecution of higher education by incapable students in too large a number were the main factors of wastage.
    • So it suggested for the introduction of diversified course in middle schools meeting the requirements of majority of students.
  • Further it suggested the diversion of more boys to industrial and commercial careers at the end of the middle stage.
  • Besides, the Committee suggested for the improvement of University Education, Women Education, Education of Minorities and Backward classes etc.
  • The Committee gave a permanent shape to the educational policy of that period and attempted for consolidating and stabilising education.
  • The report was hailed as the torch bearer of Government efforts.
  • However, the suggestions of the Committee could not be implemented effectively and the educational progress could not be maintained due to worldwide economic depression of 1930-31.
  • Most of the recommendations remained mere pious hopes.

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