History Optional Paper-I Syllabus
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas): Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs; The Cholas: administration, village economy and society; “Indian Feudalism”; Agrarian economy and urban settlements; Trade and commerce; Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order; Condition of women; Indian science and technology
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200: Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa; Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism; Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India; Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
15. The Thirteenth Century: Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success; Economic, social and cultural consequences; Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans; Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
16. The Fourteenth Century: “The Khalji Revolution”; Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures; Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq; Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account;
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement; Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture; Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century: Political Developments and Economy: Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids; The Vijayanagra Empire; Lodis; Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun; The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration; Portuguese Colonial enterprise; Bhakti and Sufi Movements
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture: Regional cultural specificities; Literary traditions; Provincial architecture; Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
20. Akbar: Conquests and consolidation of the Empire; Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems; Rajput policy; Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy; Court patronage of art and technology
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century: Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; The Empire and the Zamindars; Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb; Nature of the Mughal State; Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts; The Ahom Kingdom; Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: Population, agricultural production, craft production; Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution; Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems; Condition of peasants, condition of women; Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire: Persian histories and other literature; Hindi and other religious literature; Mughal architecture; Mughal painting; Provincial architecture and painting; Classical music; Science and technology
24. The Eighteenth Century: Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire; The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh; Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas; The Maratha fiscal and financial system; Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat: 1761; State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest.