- Wiser was the first sociologist to use word jajmani system for inter caste and inter familial system in Hindu Jajmani System 1936″ based on study in karimpur village of UP. Jajman or jijman used for land owning castes and kamin for serving group. j
- Jajman refers to person performing yagna in vedic literature( he is termed as yajaman) initially jajmani system was studied with reference to relation between jajman and purohith but later other serving caste were also added to list of kamin.
- various case studies in india on jajmani system indicate that it is subcontinental rural phenomenon with certain similar or general features with different nomenclature.
- for Majumdar though it mostly prevails in rural india it was universal in urban and rural india in pre-british times. He studied working of jajmani system and presented in “caste and communication in a indian village 1962″
Features of jajmani system-
- it is relation between landowning and arisen caste, the landlord could be rajputs, brahmin, reddy, okkalingas or even backward communities.
- jajmani relation between fixed families involves economic rights that cannot be transferred to other families. but Majumdar studied in lucknow indicated that on mutual agreement rights can be transferred.if a jajmani family splits rights are distributed among sons of common family.
- payments are generally in kind i.e.,food grains along with free residence, financial help etc to kamins. jajman protects the kamin in troubles and help in their survival.
- Beidelman brought out the elements of dependence of one caste over the other.according to him kamin have more than one family in village or no.of village to serve, on other hand landlords have a limited choice.
FUNCTIONS OF JAJMANI SYSTEM ACCORDING DIFFERENT ANTHROPOLOGIST
- Maintains and regulates division of labour and economic interdependence of caste- EDMAND LEECH.
- Jajmani serves to maintain indian villages as a self sufficient community- WISER
- It distributes agricultural produce in exchange of menial and craft services- HERALD GOULD.
- it maintains the prestige of upper caste- BEIDELMAN
- it provides stable labour supply- OSCAR LEWIS.
EXPLOITATIVE ELEMENTS OF JAJMANI SYSTEM
- It has been economic system of consisting of both exploitative and protective elements. According to Beidelman kamins were exploited by jajmans through lesser payments and cohersions.
- Majumdar refers to emergence of bonded labour from downward exploitation.
- Oscar lewis jajmani system does not give opportunity for the kamin to escape the cohersions of jajmani on other hand economic dependence of kamin on jajman increased rural poverty in india.
- for M.N.Srinivas the exploitation is not only downward but also upward as well.his study in mysore pointed at the refusal of kamin to serve the jajman who intern persuades the kamin for service.
- Herald Gould appoints that kamin are not totally dependent on jajamn as they can sell their services to other families and villages.
With the rigidity of caste system reducing jajmani system also lost its sheen, modern agriculture , emergence of market economy provide a way out for both kamin and jajman.kamins found better opportunity and income in urban areas and jajman found a range of products to choose from. At the same time government policies such as land reform and abolition of zamindari was a blow to jajmani system, promoting education of lower caste welfare scheme, employment opportunities had everlasting blow to jajmani system. hence it can be summed up that currently the system is found in traces as a relic of past.