1. Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. In this context draw contrast between El-Nino and ocean tides. [250 words]



El Nino causes the warming of sea-surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific which affects wind patterns and can trigger unusual floods as well as drought in different parts of the world, leading to reduced harvests.


Unusual Climatic Happenings:

  • The existing cool surface water due to the cold Peruvian current, gets warmed by the El Nino winds, off the coast of Peru. As the water becomes warm, the tread winds, which otherwise flow from East to west, either reverse their direction or get lost.
  • Due to this warm water, the air rises and surface air pressure above Eastern Pacific gets down. On the other hand, the water cools off in western pacific and off Asia. This leads to rise in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia.
  • Now as the pressure over the Peruvian coast reduces because of the warm sea water, the flow of moisture laden winds is shifted toward the east. Thus, rains which normally would fall over the tropical rain forests of Indonesia start falling over the deserts of Peru, causing forest fires and drought in the western Pacific and flooding in South America.
  • Low rainfall linked to El Nino leads to severe drought especially in East Africa, Central America. On the other hand, countries like Argentina, Peru experience flood ravaging. Whereas Asian countries including India face poor harvests, forest fires etc.
  • Sometimes El-Nino effect  support monsoon and lead to above average rainfall. In 1997, even before the monsoon began, waters of the equatorial Pacific Ocean had warmed sharply. But the monsoon that year ended with above average rains against the anticipation of severe drought.


Difference from Ocean Tide:

  • An ocean tide refers to the cyclic rise and fall of seawater. It draws contrast with El Nino in terms of regularity in occurrence, as the latter occurs irregularly at two- to seven-year intervals against the regular occurrence of two tidal crests and two tidal troughs during each lunar day (24 hours 50 minutes).


  1. La Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from El Nino? [CSE(PRE)-2011]
  2. La Nina is characterised by unusually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian Ocean whereas El Nino is characterised by unusually warm ocean temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.
  3. El Nino has adverse effect on south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a. 1 only

b. 2 only

c. Both 1 and 2

d. Neither 1 nor 2


Solution: (d)



  1. Which of the following statement(s) is/are true about the National Technical Board on Nutrition?


  1. It is under the ambit of Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  2. It is currently chaired by the Secretary of Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  3. Its main function includes making technical recommendations on the policy relevant issues in concerning nutrition for women and children.

a. 3 only

b. 2 & 3 only

c. 1 & 3 only

d. All of the above


Solution: (c)

Source: of National Technical Board on Nutrition (NTBN ).PDF


  1. Under the Muslim Women (Protection of Marriage) Ordinance, 2018, instant Triple Talaq has been made a cognizable offence. In the light of the above statement, which of the following statement(s) is/are true about an ordinance?


1. Under Article 123 of Indian Constitution, the power to promulgate ordinances rests with the President, on the recommendation of the union cabinet.

2. They can only be issued when Parliament is in session.

3. An ordinance needs the approval of either of the houses for ratification.

a. 1 only

b. 1 & 3 only

c. 1 & 2 only

d. All of the above


Solution: (b)




Prepared by : Bikesh Varman

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