Parakram Diwas

Parakram Diwas

On 125th birth anniversary (23rd January) of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Government of India had decided to celebrate his birthday as ‘Parakram Diwas’ every year. He was born on 23rd January 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Dutt Bose and Janakinath Bose.

Parakram Diwas
Parakram Diwas
  • He was highly influenced by Vivekananda’s teachings and considered him as his spiritual Guru.
  • His political mentor was Chittaranjan Das.
  • He was Selected for the Indian Civil Services (ICS) but refused to take up service since he did not want to serve the British government.
  • In the year 1923, Bose was elected as the President of All India Youth Congress and also the
    Secretary of Bengal State Congress.
  • He was also the editor of the newspaper “Forward”, founded by Chittaranjan Das
  • He was twice elected as President of Indian National Congress, (1938-Haripur & 1939-Tripuri).
  • Owing to political differences with Gandhi Ji, he resigned from the Congress Presidentship in 1939.
  • Organized the All India Forward Bloc in 1940 a faction within the Congress in Bengal. The purpose was to consolidate the political left and major support base in his home state Bengal.
  • in 1941 he secretly left India. He approached Russia and Germany for help in India’s freedom. He provided leadership to the Indian National Army after he went to Japan in 1943.
  • He founded the Indian Legion out of about 4500 Indian soldiers who were in the British army and had been taken prisoners by the Germans from North Africa.
Timeline: Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s struggle for Independence
1922 When Gandhi stopped Non-Cooperation movement (NCM) after Chauri-Chaura incident, Bose called it a “National Calamity”.
  • Chittaranjan Das become Mayor of Calcutta and Bose the CEO of Calcutta Corporation.
  • But, Bose deported to Rangoon for alleged involvement with revolutionaries.
1927 Bose returns to India, but Bengal Congress fell into disarray after death of Chittaranjan Das. Bose contests election to become President of Bengal congress.
1920-34 Bose pens hisautobiography- “The Indian Struggle”, seeks help from European leaders but gets arrested.
  • Civil Disobedience movement gradually waned and Gandhi withdrew from active politics.
  • Bose called Gandhi a “Failed Political Leader”.
1938 Bose is the President of Congress session at Haripur.  National planning Committee was setup under Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Bose elected as president of Tripuri session by defeating Gandhi’s favorite candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. But later, opposition from Gandhi-supporters forced him to resign from Congress.
  • Bose moved on to setup Forward bloc and Kisan Sabha.
  • Bose was placed under house arrest but escaped to Kabul and sought Soviet help to defeat British. But soviets joined the allied forces in WW2, so Bose’s plan failed.
  • Later, Bose sought the help of Nazis and Japanese, to fight against British empire.
  • Bose makes regular speeches from Nazi sponsored “Azad Hind radio”.
  • Captain Mohan forms Indian National Army (INA) with the help of Japanese, at Singapore.
1943 Bose revives Azad Hind Fauj (INA), with recruitment of 60,000 Indians from Burma, Malaya and other Southeast Asian countries.
  • INA marches along with Japanese soldiers and captures Kohima.
  • Captain Laxmi Sehgal commanded the ‘Rani Jhansi Regiment’. Later she joined CPI (Marxist), won Padma Vibhushan and died in 2012.
1945 Japan surrenders after Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • 1945-46: Nationwide strikes for release of INA prisoners.
  • August, Bose boarded a plane to Tokyo but died a crash in Taiwan.
1956 Shah Nawaz Committee report says he died in a plane crash.
1970 Justice Khosla commission says the same.


Role of Subhash Chandra Bose in India’s struggle for independence:

  1. Political leadership: Subhash Chandra Bose played a very active role in India’s political life during most of the 1930’s. He was jailed in 1921-1922 because of his political activities.
  • Immediately upon his release, he organised the All-Bengal Young Men’s Conference.
  • He was twice elected President of the Indian National Congress (1938 and 1939).
  • He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule.

During his political career, India’s liberation from British rule remained Bose’s foremost political goal. By 1930, Bose had formulated the broad strategy to throw off the yoke of British imperialism and assume its rightful place as a leader in Asia.

  1. Work with other nations: Both before and during the second world war, Bose worked tirelessly to secure German and Japanese support in freeing his beloved homeland of foreign rule.
  • The Indian National Army: In July 1943 in Singapore, with Japanese assistance, he reorganised and later led the Indian National Army. It was formed from Indian prisoners of war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces.
  • Azad Hind Government: With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile.
  1. Mass mobilisation: Subhash Chandra Bose played an important role in mass mobilisation and rousing feeling of independence among them. Realising that manpower was India’s greatest resource, he proclaimed that all Indians should actively participate in the fight for freedom. With the formation of provincial government of Azad Hind, he appealed directly for total mobilisation to the mass of Indians.
  2. Women mobilisation: Bose called on both men and women for freedom struggle. Bose believed that women were equals of men, and should therefore be likewise prepared to fight and sacrifice for India’s liberation. Throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s he had campaigned in India to bring women more fully into the freedom struggle of the nation. After his return to Asia in 1943 he called on women to serve as soldiers in the Indian National Army. A women’s regiment (Rani of Jhansi Regiment) was formed in 1943, and came to number about 1,000 women.
  3. Youth leadership: Bose was also deeply committed to the youth movement. Convinced that young people were by nature idealistic, restless and open to new ideas, Bose worked with and put efforts to the new Youth Leagues that were formed in a number of provinces during the 1920’s. He motivated youth to join the cause of Indian freedom struggle. Bose believed that India’s liberation would be achieved only through the efforts and sacrifices of the conscious younger generation.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *