Sociological Perspectives

Sociological Perspectives are tool to analysing social life  or social phenomena at different levels (micro or macro or mixed). Sociologists analyse social phenomena at different levels and from different Sociological Perspectives. It helps us to understand social phenomena from different ways/ dimensions/viewpoints. There are three major perspectives in Sociology as follows: 

  1. Functionalist perspective,
  2. Conflict perspective, and
  3. Symbolic interactionist perspective (also known as interactionist perspective ).

Each perspective offers a variety of explanations about the  social phenomena, social world and human behaviour.

Key Features of the Three Perspectives in Sociology


Subject under Focus Nature of Society How Social Order is
Macro Level
Social order or
Social stability
Consists of interdependent
groups pursuing common goals.
Through social consensus, where people agree to cooperate to maintain to social order & social stability.
Conflict Perspective
Macro Level
Social conflict or
Social change
Made up of conflicting groups, each pursuing its
own interest
Through coercion, social
order is imposed by the
powerful on the weak.
Micro Level
Interaction (face to face) between individuals, Composed of individuals
whose actions depend on interpreting each other’s behaviour
Through constant negotiations   between individuals trying to
understand each other’s actions and reactions


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